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The Annotated Beauty and the Beast

The following is an annotated version of the fairy tale. I recommend that you read the story in its entirety before exploring the notes links, especially if you have not read it in a while.

ONCE upon a time, in a very far-off country, there lived a merchant1 who had been so fortunate in all his undertakings that he was enormously rich. As he had, however, six sons and six daughters,2 he found that his money was not too much to let them all have everything they fancied, as they were accustomed to do.

But one day a most unexpected misfortune befell them. Their house caught fire3 and was speedily burnt to the ground, with all the splendid furniture, the books, pictures, gold, silver, and precious goods it contained; and this was only the beginning of their troubles. Their father, who had until this moment prospered in all ways, suddenly lost every ship he had upon the sea, either by dint of pirates, shipwreck, or fire. Then he heard that his clerks in distant countries, whom he trusted entirely, had proved unfaithful; and at last from great wealth he fell into the direst poverty.

All that he had left was a little house in a desolate place at least a hundred leagues4 from the town in which he had lived, and to this he was forced to retreat with his children, who were in despair at the idea of leading such a different life. Indeed, the daughters at first hoped that their friends, who had been so numerous while they were rich, would insist on their staying in their houses now they no longer possessed one. But they soon found that they were left alone, and that their former friends even attributed their misfortunes to their own extravagance, and showed no intention of offering them any help. So nothing was left for them but to take their departure to the cottage,5 which stood in the midst of a dark forest,6 and seemed to be the most dismal place upon the face of the earth.

As they were too poor to have any servants,7 the girls had to work hard, like peasants, and the sons, for their part, cultivated the fields to earn their living. Roughly clothed, and living in the simplest way, the girls regretted unceasingly the luxuries and amusements of their former life; only the youngest8 tried to be brave and cheerful. She had been as sad as anyone when misfortune overtook her father, but, soon recovering her natural gaiety, she set to work to make the best of things, to amuse her father and brothers as well as she could, and to try to persuade her sisters to join her in dancing and singing. But they would do nothing of the sort, and, because she was not as doleful as themselves, they declared that this miserable life was all she was fit for. But she was really far prettier and cleverer than they were; indeed, she was so lovely that she was always called Beauty.9

After two years, when they were all beginning to get used to their new life, something happened to disturb their tranquillity. Their father received the news that one of his ships, which he had believed to be lost, had come safely into port with a rich cargo. All the sons and daughters at once thought that their poverty was at an end, and wanted to set out directly for the town; but their father, who was more prudent, begged them to wait a little, and, though it was harvest time,10 and he could ill be spared, determined to go himself first, to make inquiries. Only the youngest daughter had any doubt but that they would soon again be as rich as they were before, or at least rich enough to live comfortably in some town where they would find amusement and gay companions once more. So they all loaded their father with commissions for jewels and dresses which it would have taken a fortune to buy; only Beauty, feeling sure that it was of no use, did not ask for anything. Her father, noticing her silence, said: "And what shall I bring for you, Beauty?"

"The only thing I wish for is to see you come home safely," she answered.

But this only vexed her sisters, who fancied she was blaming them for having asked for such costly things. Her father, however, was pleased, but as he thought that at her age she certainly ought to like pretty presents, he told her to choose something.

"Well, dear father," she said, "as you insist upon it, I beg that you will bring me a rose.11 I have not seen one since we came here, and I love them so much."

So the merchant set out and reached the town as quickly as possible, but only to find that his former companions, believing him to be dead, had divided between them the goods which the ship had brought; and after six months12 of trouble and expense he found himself as poor as when he started, having been able to recover only just enough to pay the cost of his journey. To make matters worse, he was obliged to leave the town in the most terrible weather, so that by the time he was within a few leagues of his home he was almost exhausted with cold and fatigue. Though he knew it would take some hours to get through the forest, he was so anxious to be at his journey's end that he resolved to go on; but night overtook him, and the deep snow13 and bitter frost made it impossible for his horse to carry him any further. Not a house was to be seen; the only shelter he could get was the hollow trunk of a great tree, and there he crouched all the night which seemed to him the longest he had ever known. In spite of his weariness the howling of the wolves kept him awake, and even when at last the day broke he was not much better off, for the falling snow had covered up every path, and he did not know which way to turn.

At length he made out some sort of track, and though at the beginning it was so rough and slippery that he fell down more than once, it presently became easier, and led him into an avenue of trees which ended in a splendid castle.14 It seemed to the merchant very strange that no snow had fallen in the avenue, which was entirely composed of orange trees,15 covered with flowers and fruit. When he reached the first court of the castle he saw before him a flight of agate steps, and went up them, and passed through several splendidly furnished rooms. The pleasant warmth of the air revived him, and he felt very hungry; but there seemed to be nobody in all this vast and splendid palace whom he could ask to give him something to eat. Deep silence16 reigned everywhere, and at last, tired of roaming through empty rooms and galleries, he stopped in a room smaller than the rest, where a clear fire was burning and a couch was drawn up closely to it. Thinking that this must be prepared for someone who was expected, he sat down to wait till he should come, and very soon fell into a sweet sleep.

When his extreme hunger wakened him after several hours, he was still alone; but a little table, upon which was a good dinner, had been drawn up close to him, and, as he had eaten nothing for twenty-four hours, he lost no time in beginning his meal, hoping that he might soon have an opportunity of thanking his considerate entertainer, whoever it might be. But no one appeared, and even after another long sleep, from which he awoke completely refreshed, there was no sign of anybody, though a fresh meal of dainty cakes and fruit was prepared upon the little table at his elbow. Being naturally timid, the silence began to terrify him, and he resolved to search once more through all the rooms; but it was of no use. Not even a servant was to be seen; there was no sign of life in the palace! He began to wonder what he should do, and to amuse himself by pretending that all the treasures he saw were his own, and considering how he would divide them among his children. Then he went down into the garden, and though it was winter everywhere else, here the sun shone, and the birds sang, and the flowers bloomed, and the air was soft and sweet. The merchant, in ecstacies with all he saw and heard, said to himself:

"All this must be meant for me. I will go this minute and bring my children to share all these delights."

In spite of being so cold and weary when he reached the castle, he had taken his horse to the stable and fed it. Now he thought he would saddle it for his homeward journey, and he turned down the path which led to the stable. This path had a hedge of roses on each side of it, and the merchant thought he had never seen or smelt such exquisite flowers. They reminded him of his promise to Beauty, and he stopped and had just gathered one to take to her when he was startled by a strange noise behind him. Turning round, he saw a frightful Beast,17 which seemed to be very angry and said, in a terrible voice:

"Who told you that you might gather my roses? Was it not enough that I allowed you to be in my palace and was kind to you? This is the way you show your gratitude, by stealing my flowers! But your insolence shall not go unpunished." The merchant, terrified by these furious words, dropped the fatal rose, and, throwing himself on his knees, cried: "Pardon me, noble sir. I am truly grateful to you for your hospitality, which was so magnificent that I could not imagine that you would be offended by my taking such a little thing as a rose." But the Beast's anger was not lessened by this speech.

"You are very ready with excuses and flattery," he cried; "but that will not save you from the death you deserve."

"Alas!" thought the merchant, "if my daughter could only know what danger her rose has brought me into!"

And in despair he began to tell the Beast all his misfortunes, and the reason of his journey, not forgetting to mention Beauty's request.

"A king's ransom would hardly have procured all that my other daughters asked." he said: "but I thought that I might at least take Beauty her rose. I beg you to forgive me, for you see I meant no harm."

The Beast considered for a moment, and then he said, in a less furious tone:

"I will forgive you on one condition -- that is, that you will give me one of your daughters."18

"Ah!" cried the merchant, "if I were cruel enough to buy my own life at the expense of one of my children's, what excuse could I invent to bring her here?"

"No excuse would be necessary," answered the Beast. "If she comes at all she must come willingly.19 On no other condition will I have her. See if any one of them is courageous enough, and loves you well enough to come and save your life. You seem to be an honest man, so I will trust you to go home. I give you a month to see if either of your daughters will come back with you and stay here, to let you go free. If neither of them is willing, you must come alone, after bidding them good-by for ever, for then you will belong to me. And do not imagine that you can hide from me, for if you fail to keep your word I will come and fetch you!" added the Beast grimly.

The merchant accepted this proposal, though he did not really think any of his daughters could be persuaded to come. He promised to return at the time appointed, and then, anxious to escape from the presence of the Beast, he asked permission to set off at once. But the Beast answered that he could not go until next day.

"Then you will find a horse ready for you," he said. "Now go and eat your supper, and await my orders."

The poor merchant, more dead than alive, went back to his room, where the most delicious supper was already served on the little table which was drawn up before a blazing fire. But he was too terrified to eat, and only tasted a few of the dishes, for fear the Beast should be angry if he did not obey his orders. When he had finished he heard a great noise in the next room, which he knew meant that the Beast was coming. As he could do nothing to escape his visit, the only thing that remained was to seem as little afraid as possible; so when the Beast appeared and asked roughly if he had supped well, the merchant answered humbly that he had, thanks to his host's kindness. Then the Beast warned him to remember their agreement, and to prepare his daughter exactly for what she had to expect.

"Do not get up to-morrow," he added, "until you see the sun and hear a golden bell ring. Then you will find your breakfast waiting for you here, and the horse you are to ride will be ready in the courtyard. He will also bring you back again when you come with your daughter a month hence. Farewell. Take a rose to Beauty, and remember your promise!"

The merchant was only too glad when the Beast went away, and though he could not sleep for sadness, he lay down until the sun rose. Then, after a hasty breakfast, he went to gather Beauty's rose, and mounted his horse, which carried him off so swiftly that in an instant he had lost sight of the palace, and he was still wrapped in gloomy thoughts when it stopped before the door of the cottage.

His sons and daughters, who had been very uneasy at his long absence, rushed to meet him, eager to know the result of his journey, which, seeing him mounted upon a splendid horse and wrapped in a rich mantle, they supposed to be favorable. He hid the truth from them at first, only saying sadly to Beauty as he gave her the rose:

"Here is what you asked me to bring you; you little know what it has cost."

But this excited their curiosity so greatly that presently he told them his adventures from beginning to end, and then they were all very unhappy. The girls lamented loudly over their lost hopes, and the sons declared that their father should not return to this terrible castle, and began to make plans for killing the Beast if it should come to fetch him. But he reminded them that he had promised20 to go back. Then the girls were very angry with Beauty, and said it was all her fault, and that if she had asked for something sensible this would never have happened, and complained bitterly that they should have to suffer for her folly.

Poor Beauty, much distressed, said to them:

"I have, indeed, caused this misfortune, but I assure you I did it innocently. Who could have guessed that to ask for a rose in the middle of summer would cause so much misery? But as I did the mischief it is only just that I should suffer for it. I will therefore go back with my father21 to keep his promise."

At first nobody would hear of this arrangement, and her father and brothers, who loved her dearly, declared that nothing should make them let her go; but Beauty was firm. As the time drew near she divided all her little possessions between her sisters, and said good-by to everything she loved, and when the fatal day came she encouraged and cheered her father as they mounted together the horse which had brought him back. It seemed to fly rather than gallop, but so smoothly that Beauty was not frightened; indeed, she would have enjoyed the journey if she had not feared what might happen to her at the end of it. Her father still tried to persuade her to go back, but in vain. While they were talking the night fell, and then, to their great surprise, wonderful colored lights began to shine in all directions, and splendid fireworks blazed out before them; all the forest was illuminated by them, and even felt pleasantly warm, though it had been bitterly cold before. This lasted until they reached the avenue of orange trees, where were statues holding flaming torches, and when they got nearer to the palace they saw that it was illuminated from the roof to the ground, and music sounded softly from the courtyard.

"The Beast must be very hungry," said Beauty, trying to laugh, "if he makes all this rejoicing over the arrival of his prey." But, in spite of her anxiety, she could not help admiring all the wonderful things she saw.

The horse stopped at the foot of the flight of steps leading to the terrace, and when they had dismounted her father led her to the little room he had been in before, where they found a splendid fire burning, and the table daintily spread with a delicious supper.

The merchant knew that this was meant for them, and Beauty, who was rather less frightened now that she had passed through so many rooms and seen nothing of the Beast, was quite willing to begin, for her long ride had made her very hungry. But they had hardly finished their meal when the noise of the Beast's footsteps was heard approaching, and Beauty clung to her father in terror, which became all the greater when she saw how frightened he was. But when the Beast really appeared, though she trembled at the sight of him, she made a great effort to hide her terror, and saluted him respectfully.

This evidently pleased the Beast. After looking at her he said, in a tone that might have struck terror into the boldest heart, though he did not seem to be angry:

"Good-evening, old man. Good-evening, Beauty."

The merchant was too terrified to reply, but Beauty answered sweetly: "Good-evening, Beast."

"Have you come willingly?" asked the Beast. "Will you be content to stay here when your father goes away?"

Beauty answered bravely that she was quite prepared to stay.

"I am pleased with you," said the Beast. "As you have come of your own accord, you may stay.22 As for you, old man," he added, turning to the merchant, "at sunrise tomorrow you will take your departure. When the bell rings get up quickly and eat your breakfast, and you will find the same horse waiting to take you home; but remember that you must never expect to see my palace again."

Then turning to Beauty, he said:

"Take your father into the next room, and help him to choose everything you think your brothers and sisters would like to have. You will find two traveling-trunks there; fill them as full as you can. It is only just that you should send them something very precious as a remembrance of yourself."

Then he went away, after saying, "Good-by, Beauty; good-by, old man"; and though Beauty was beginning to think with great dismay of her father's departure, she was afraid to disobey the Beast's orders; and they went into the next room, which had shelves and cupboards all round it. They were greatly surprised at the riches it contained. There were splendid dresses fit for a queen, with all the ornaments that were to be worn with them; and when Beauty opened the cupboards she was quite dazzled by the gorgeous jewels that lay in heaps upon every shelf. After choosing a vast quantity, which she divided between her sisters -- for she had made a heap of the wonderful dresses for each of them -- she opened the last chest, which was full of gold.23

"I think, father," she said, "that, as the gold will be more useful to you, we had better take out the other things again, and fill the trunks with it." So they did this; but the more they put in the more room there seemed to be, and at last they put back all the jewels and dresses they had taken out, and Beauty even added as many more of the jewels as she could carry at once; and then the trunks were not too full, but they were so heavy that an elephant could not have carried them!

"The Beast was mocking us," cried the merchant; "he must have pretended to give us all these things, knowing that I could not carry them away."

"Let us wait and see," answered Beauty. "I cannot believe that he meant to deceive us. All we can do is to fasten them up and leave them ready."

So they did this and returned to the little room, where, to their astonishment, they found breakfast ready. The merchant ate his with a good appetite, as the Beast's generosity made him believe that he might perhaps venture to come back soon and see Beauty. But she felt sure that her father was leaving her for ever, so she was very sad when the bell rang sharply for the second time, and warned them that the time had come for them to part. They went down into the courtyard, where two horses were waiting, one loaded with the two trunks, the other for him to ride. They were pawing the ground in their impatience to start, and the merchant was forced to bid Beauty a hasty farewell; and as soon as he was mounted he went off at such a pace that she lost sight of him in an instant.

Then Beauty began to cry, and wandered sadly back to her own room. But she soon found that she was very sleepy, and as she had nothing better to do she lay down and instantly fell asleep. And then she dreamed24 that she was walking by a brook25 bordered with trees, and lamenting her sad fate, when a young prince,26 handsomer than anyone she had ever seen, and with a voice that went straight to her heart, came and said to her, "Ah, Beauty! you are not so unfortunate as you suppose. Here you will be rewarded for all you have suffered elsewhere. Your every wish shall be gratified. Only try to find me out, no matter how I may be disguised, as I love you dearly, and in making me happy you will find your own happiness. Be as true-hearted as you are beautiful, and we shall have nothing left to wish for."

"What can I do, Prince, to make you happy?" said Beauty.

"Only be grateful," he answered, "and do not trust too much to your eyes.27 And, above all, do not desert me until you have saved me from my cruel misery."

After this she thought she found herself in a room with a stately and beautiful lady, who said to her:

"Dear Beauty, try not to regret all you have left behind you, for you are destined to a better fate. Only do not let yourself be deceived by appearances."

Beauty found her dreams so interesting that she was in no hurry to awake, but presently the clock roused her by calling her name softly twelve times, and then she got up and found her dressing-table set out with everything she could possibly want; and when her toilet was finished she found dinner was waiting in the room next to hers. But dinner does not take very long when you are all by yourself, and very soon she sat down cosily in the corner of a sofa, and began to think about the charming Prince she had seen in her dream.

"He said I could make him happy," said Beauty to herself.

"It seems, then, that this horrible Beast keeps him a prisoner. How can I set him free? I wonder why they both told me not to trust to appearances? I don't understand it. But, after all, it was only a dream, so why should I trouble myself about it? I had better go and find something to do to amuse myself."

So she got up and began to explore some of the many rooms of the palace.

The first she entered was lined with mirrors,28 and Beauty saw herself reflected on every side, and thought she had never seen such a charming room. Then a bracelet29 which was hanging from a chandelier caught her eye, and on taking it down she was greatly surprised to find that it held a portrait of her unknown admirer, just as she had seen him in her dream. With great delight she slipped the bracelet on her arm, and went on into a gallery of pictures, where she soon found a portrait30 of the same handsome Prince, as large as life, and so well painted that as she studied it he seemed to smile kindly at her. Tearing herself away from the portrait at last, she passed through into a room which contained every musical instrument31 under the sun, and here she amused herself for a long while in trying some of them, and singing until she was tired. The next room was a library,32 and she saw everything she had ever wanted to read, as well as everything she had read, and it seemed to her that a whole lifetime would not be enough to even read the names of the books, there were so many. By this time it was growing dusk, and wax candles in diamond and ruby candlesticks were beginning to light themselves in every room.

Beauty found her supper served just at the time she preferred to have it, but she did not see anyone or hear a sound, and, though her father had warned her that she would be alone, she began to find it rather dull.

But presently she heard the Beast coming, and wondered tremblingly if he meant to eat her up now.

However, as he did not seem at all ferocious, and only said gruffly:

"Good-evening, Beauty," she answered cheerfully and managed to conceal her terror. Then the Beast asked her how she had been amusing herself, and she told him all the rooms she had seen.

Then he asked if she thought she could be happy in his palace; and Beauty answered that everything was so beautiful that she would be very hard to please if she could not be happy. And after about an hour's talk Beauty began to think that the Beast was not nearly so terrible as she had supposed at first. Then he got up to leave her, and said in his gruff voice:

"Do you love me, Beauty? Will you marry me?"33

"Oh! what shall I say?" cried Beauty, for she was afraid to make the Beast angry by refusing.

"Say 'yes' or 'no' without fear," he replied.

"Oh! no, Beast," said Beauty hastily.

"Since you will not, good-night, Beauty," he said.

And she answered, "Good-night, Beast," very glad to find that her refusal had not provoked him. And after he was gone she was very soon in bed and asleep, and dreaming of her unknown Prince. She thought he came and said to her:

"Ah, Beauty! why are you so unkind to me? I fear I am fated to be unhappy for many a long day still."

And then her dreams changed, but the charming Prince figured in them all; and when morning came her first thought was to look at the portrait, and see if it was really like him, and she found that it certainly was.

This morning she decided to amuse herself in the garden,34 for the sun shone, and all the fountains were playing; but she was astonished to find that every place was familiar to her, and presently she came to the brook where the myrtle trees were growing where she had first met the Prince in her dream, and that made her think more than ever that he must be kept a prisoner by the Beast. When she was tired she went back to the palace, and found a new room full of materials for every kind of work -- ribbons to make into bows, and silks to work into flowers. Then there was an aviary full of rare birds,35 which were so tame that they flew to Beauty as soon as they saw her, and perched upon her shoulders and her head.

"Pretty little creatures," she said, "how I wish that your cage was nearer to my room, that I might often hear you sing!

So saying she opened a door, and found, to her delight, that it led into her own room, though she had thought it was quite the other side of the palace.

There were more birds in a room farther on, parrots and cockatoos that could talk, and they greeted Beauty by name; indeed, she found them so entertaining that she took one or two back to her room, and they talked to her while she was at supper; after which the Beast paid her his usual visit, and asked her the same questions as before, and then with a gruff "good-night" he took his departure, and Beauty went to bed to dream of her mysterious Prince.

The days passed swiftly in different amusements, and after a while Beauty found out another strange thing in the palace, which often pleased her when she was tired of being alone. There was one room which she had not noticed particularly; it was empty, except that under each of the windows stood a very comfortable chair; and the first time she had looked out of the window it had seemed to her that a black curtain prevented her from seeing anything outside. But the second time she went into the room, happening to be tired, she sat down in one of the chairs, when instantly the curtain was rolled aside, and a most amusing pantomime36 was acted before her; there were dances, and colored lights, and music, and pretty dresses, and it was all so gay that Beauty was in ecstacies. After that she tried the other seven windows in turn, and there was some new and surprising entertainment to be seen from each of them, so that Beauty never could feel lonely any more. Every evening after supper the Beast came to see her, and always before saying good-night asked her in his terrible voice:

"Beauty, will you marry me?"

And it seemed to Beauty, now she understood him better, that when she said, "No, Beast," he went away quite sad. But her happy dreams of the handsome young Prince soon made her forget the poor Beast, and the only thing that at all disturbed her was to be constantly told to distrust appearances, to let her heart guide her, and not her eyes, and many other equally perplexing things, which, consider as she would, she could not understand.

So everything went on for a long time, until at last, happy as she was, Beauty began to long for the sight of her father and her brothers and sisters; and one night, seeing her look very sad, the Beast asked her what was the matter. Beauty had quite ceased to be afraid of him.37 Now she knew that he was really gentle in spite of his ferocious looks and his dreadful voice. So she answered that she was longing to see her home once more. Upon hearing this the Beast seemed sadly distressed, and cried miserably.

"Ah! Beauty, have you the heart to desert an unhappy Beast like this? What more do you want to make you happy? Is it because you hate me that you want to escape?"

"No, dear Beast," answered Beauty softly, "I do not hate you, and I should be very sorry never to see you any more, but I long to see my father again. Only let me go for two months, and I promise to come back to you and stay for the rest of my life."

The Beast, who had been sighing dolefully while she spoke, now replied:

"I cannot refuse you anything you ask, even though it should cost me my life. Take the four boxes you will find in the room next to your own, and fill them with everything you wish to take with you. But remember your promise and come back when the two months are over, or you may have cause to repent it, for if you do not come in good time you will find your faithful Beast dead. You will not need any chariot to bring you back. Only say good-by to all your brothers and sisters the night before you come away, and when you have gone to bed turn this ring38 round upon your finger and say firmly: 'I wish to go back to my palace and see my Beast again.' Good-night, Beauty. Fear nothing, sleep peacefully, and before long you shall see your father once more."

As soon as Beauty was alone she hastened to fill the boxes with all the rare and precious things she saw about her, and only when she was tired of heaping things into them did they seem to be full.

Then she went to bed, but could hardly sleep for joy. And when at last she did begin to dream of her beloved Prince she was grieved to see him stretched upon a grassy bank, sad and weary, and hardly like himself.

"What is the matter?" she cried.

He looked at her reproachfully, and said:

"How can you ask me, cruel one? Are you not leaving me to my death perhaps?"

"Ah! don't be so sorrowful," cried Beauty; "I am only going to assure my father that I am safe and happy. I have promised the Beast faithfully that I will come back, and he would die of grief if I did not keep my word!"

"What would that matter to you?" said the Prince "Surely you would not care?"

"Indeed, I should be ungrateful if I did not care for such a kind Beast," cried Beauty indignantly. "I would die to save him from pain. I assure you it is not his fault that he is so ugly."

Just then a strange sound woke her -- someone was speaking not very far away; and opening her eyes she found herself in a room she had never seen before, which was certainly not nearly so splendid as those she was used to in the Beast's palace. Where could she be? She got up and dressed hastily, and then saw that the boxes she had packed the night before were all in the room.

While she was wondering by what magic the Beast had transported them and herself to this strange place she suddenly heard her father's voice, and rushed out and greeted him joyfully. Her brothers and sisters were all astonished at her appearance, as they had never expected to see her again, and there was no end to the questions they asked her. She had also much to hear about what had happened to them while she was away, and of her father's journey home. But when they heard that she had only come to be with them for a short time, and then must go back to the Beast's palace for ever, they lamented loudly. Then Beauty asked her father what he thought could be the meaning of her strange dreams, and why the Prince constantly begged her not to trust to appearances. After much consideration, he answered: "You tell me yourself that the Beast, frightful as he is, loves you dearly, and deserves your love and gratitude for his gentleness and kindness; I think the Prince must mean you to understand that you ought to reward him by doing as he wishes you to, in spite of his ugliness."

Beauty could not help seeing that this seemed very probable; still, when she thought of her dear Prince who was so handsome, she did not feel at all inclined to marry the Beast. At any rate, for two months she need not decide, but could enjoy herself with her sisters. But though they were rich now, and lived in town again, and had plenty of acquaintances, Beauty found that nothing amused her very much; and she often thought of the palace, where she was so happy, especially as at home she never once dreamed of her dear Prince, and she felt quite sad without him.

Then her sisters39 seemed to have got quite used to being without her, and even found her rather in the way, so she would not have been sorry when the two months were over but for her father and brothers, who begged her to stay, and seemed so grieved at the thought of her departure that she had not the courage to say good-by to them. Every day when she got up she meant to say it at night, and when night came she put it off again, until at last she had a dismal dream which helped her to make up her mind. She thought she was wandering in a lonely path in the palace gardens, when she heard groans which seemed to come from some bushes hiding the entrance of a cave, and running quickly to see what could be the matter, she found the Beast stretched out upon his side, apparently dying. He reproached her faintly with being the cause of his distress, and at the same moment a stately lady appeared, and said very gravely:

"Ah! Beauty, you are only just in time to save his life. See what happens when people do not keep their promises! If you had delayed one day more, you would have found him dead."

Beauty was so terrified by this dream that the next morning she announced her intention of going back at once, and that very night she said good-by to her father and all her brothers and sisters, and as soon as she was in bed she turned her ring round upon her finger, and said firmly, "I wish to go back to my palace and see my Beast again," as she had been told to do.

Then she fell asleep instantly, and only woke up to hear the clock saying "Beauty, Beauty" twelve times in its musical voice, which told her at once that she was really in the palace once more. Everything was just as before, and her birds were so glad to see her! But Beauty thought she had never known such a long day, for she was so anxious to see the Beast again that she felt as if suppertime would never come.

But when it did come and no Beast appeared she was really frightened; so, after listening and waiting for a long time, she ran down into the garden to search for him. Up and down the paths and avenues ran poor Beauty, calling him in vain, for no one answered, and not a trace of him could she find; until at last, quite tired, she stopped for a minute's rest, and saw that she was standing opposite the shady path she had seen in her dream. She rushed down it, and, sure enough, there was the cave,40 and in it lay the Beast -- asleep, as Beauty thought. Quite glad to have found him, she ran up and stroked his head, but, to her horror, he did not move or open his eyes.

"Oh! he is dead;41 and it is all my fault," said Beauty, crying bitterly.

But then, looking at him again, she fancied he still breathed, and, hastily fetching some water from the nearest fountain, she sprinkled it over his face,42 and, to her great delight, he began to revive.

"Oh! Beast, how you frightened me!" she cried. "I never knew how much I loved you until just now, when I feared I was too late to save your life."

"Can you really love such an ugly creature as I am?"43 said the Beast faintly. "Ah! Beauty, you only came just in time. I was dying because I thought you had forgotten your promise. But go back now and rest, I shall see you again by and by."

Beauty, who had half expected that he would be angry with her, was reassured by his gentle voice, and went back to the palace, where supper was awaiting her; and afterward the Beast came in as usual, and talked about the time she had spent with her father, asking if she had enjoyed herself, and if they had all been very glad to see her.

Beauty answered politely, and quite enjoyed telling him all that had happened to her. And when at last the time came for him to go, and he asked, as he had so often asked before, "Beauty, will you marry me?"

She answered softly, "Yes, dear Beast."

As she spoke a blaze of light sprang up before the windows of the palace; fireworks crackled and guns banged, and across the avenue of orange trees, in letters all made of fire-flies, was written: "Long live the Prince and his Bride."

Turning to ask the Beast what it could all mean, Beauty found that he had disappeared, and in his place stood her long-loved Prince!44 At the same moment the wheels of a chariot were heard upon the terrace, and two ladies entered the room. One of them Beauty recognized as the stately lady she had seen in her dreams; the other was also so grand and queenly that Beauty hardly knew which to greet first.

But the one she already knew said to her companion:

"Well, Queen,45 this is Beauty, who has had the courage to rescue your son from the terrible enchantment. They love one another, and only your consent to their marriage is wanting to make them perfectly happy."

"I consent with all my heart," cried the Queen. "How can I ever thank you enough, charming girl, for having restored my dear son to his natural form?"

And then she tenderly embraced Beauty and the Prince, who had meanwhile been greeting the Fairy46 and receiving her congratulations.

"Now," said the Fairy to Beauty, "I suppose you would like me to send for all your brothers and sisters to dance at your wedding?"

And so she did, and the marriage was celebrated47 the very next day with the utmost splendor, and Beauty and the Prince lived happily ever after.

by Madame de Villeneuve
Note: The version of the story which I have annotated comes from Andrew Lang's Blue Fairy Book (1889). He attributes his version to de Villeneuve, but his version is actually an interesting mesh of de Beaumont and de Villeneuve. Read more about the versions on the History of Beauty and the Beast page.

Lang, Andrew, ed. "Beauty and the Beast." The Blue Fairy Book. New York: Dover, 1965. (Original published 1889.)


Below you will find the annotations for the Beauty and the Beast fairy tale. Sources have been cited in parenthetical references, but I have not linked them directly to their full citations which appear on the Beauty and the Beast Bibliography page. However, I have provided links back to the Annotated Beauty and the Beast page to make referencing between the notes and the story easier and faster.

1.  Merchant: The daughter of a merchant, Beauty is a member of the middle class, not a member of the nobility.
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2.  Six sons and six daughters:  The number of siblings varies between tales. Often in modern day versions, the brothers are not mentioned, but the sisters--usually two--are jealous and selfish. Disney's film version omits all siblings and provides a new menace in the form of Gaston. Gaston is a blood-thirsty man who wants to marry Belle since she is the prettiest woman in town and thus the best wife for him.
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3.  House caught fire:  All of the misfortunes in this paragraph are beyond the control of the family and point at the unfairness of life.
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4.  Hundred leagues:  According to Webster's Dictionary, a league is roughly 3 miles, so the distance is about 300 miles or 483 kilometers.
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5.  Cottage:  A cottage represents the simple and carefree country life or a humble life (Olderr 1986). This is obviously the type of life the family is least accustomed to living. The cottage represents their fall in fortunes from a grand house to a simple home.
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6.  Forest:  According to Jungian psychology, the forest is a representation of the feminine principle and is identified with the unconscious. The foliage blocks the sun's rays, the sun being associated with the male principle. The forest symbolizes the dangerous side of the unconscious, its ability to destroy reason (Cirlot) and (Matthews). It is a recurrent image in German fairy tales.
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7.  Servants:  In past centuries, the middle and upper class households had servants, even if only one. The lower class usually worked as servants. The family's inability to have even one servant illustrates their total poverty.
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8.  Youngest:  Fairy tales often contain multiple siblings in which the youngest becomes the protagonist. Traditional folklore is primarily interested in only children or youngest siblings. Either the youngest is the most beautiful and worthy--often female protagonists--or the youngest is stupid and lucky--often male protagonists. In either scenario, the youngest achieves good fortune through an adventure and/or magical helper. "It is the modest, the humble, and often the dispossessed who are elevated to noble rank" (Tatar, 2002, 235).

The youngest is the least experienced and perhaps most protected of the children in a family. The youngest is also the child least likely to receive a financial inheritance in the days when the eldest son received the bulk of a father's estate. The youngest would consequently find it necessary to know how to fend for themselves in the world by marrying well or choosing a career.
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9.  Beauty:  Just like many fairy tale heroines, Beauty is named for a physical trait, in this case, her beauty. However, it can be argued that she is named for her inner beauty which is shown in contrast to her sisters' vanity. Beauty is virtuous which will allow her to ultimately see beyond the Beast's physical appearance.

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10.  Harvest time:  The gathering of a crop of any kind; the ingathering of the crops; also, the season of gathering grain and fruits, usually late summer or early autumn (Webster's Dictionary 1990).
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11.  Rose:  Roses symbolize love, completion, perfection, beauty, and the heart (Olderr 1986).

The rose is a common element in the Beauty and the Beast tales. Beauty usually requests a rose from her father, hoping to ask for a gift he can afford whatever his success in reviving his business. Ironically, Beauty's request for the rose will be the most dangerous and costly gift the father tries to produce.

In later versions of the story, primarily Disney's film, another rose symbolizes the Beast's life. The Beast has been given a fixed amount of time to have the spell broken which is represented by the rose. The rose will die when the time is up.
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12.  Six months:  In the time before cars and airplanes, trips to other towns were often expected to last for months with time for traveling, visiting and conducting business at the destination.
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13.  Snow: The passing seasons play an integral part of the story, often contrasting with the season in the Beast's garden.  Snow represents death, blindness, nothingness, purity, chastity, and frigidity (Olderr 1986).
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14.  Castle:  The Beast's castle is one of our first hints that he is not all that he appears. How did the Beast acquire the castle? Is he the enchanted owner? The castle has magical, invisible servants which keep it running smoothly.

In Disney's film version, the servants have been transformed into cute, animated versions of common household objects.
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15.  Orange trees:  An orange tree symbolizes generosity (Olderr 1986). In this case, the orange trees also show the unusual nature of the grounds. It is warm enough for the trees to exist in this world which is too cold for orange trees under normal circumstances.
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16.  Silence:  One can imagine a deafening silence, filled with the suspense of searching for an inhabitant, be it human or animal. In a large castle that should be bustling with life and activity to keep it in good shape, the silence would be terrifying. The silence also foreshadows that the Beast does not have all of the traits of a beast, including noisiness.
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17.  Beast:  The Beast is the animal bridegroom, an animal with human abilities, grotesque in appearance. He is usually wise and kind as a result from his suffering but in de Villeneuve's version he is required by the enchantment to appear stupid. He can only win Beauty with gentle stupidity, more like a dumb pet dog. In Disney's version, the Beast is a beast in personality, too. He is quick to anger and has a hard time controlling his temper. Beauty and the Beast's relationship is much more volatile in the film than it is in the traditional versions of the tale in which the Beast woos with courtly manners.

In some interpretations of the tale, the Beast represents anti-social, uncivilized behavior which Beauty tames with her virtue and self-sacrificing nature. The tale becomes a tale about socialization with this interpretation.

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18.  Give me one of your daughters:  In the days when many marriages were arranged, the giving of a daughter in marriage was common. Women rarely had any influence over the choice of their husbands by their parents. Marriages were often made for political or social reasons, especially in higher society. Since the thought of being given to a man (especially a beast) is scary, this story deals with the issues of learning to love one's spouse after marriage. Beauty comes to love the Beast after living in his house.
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19.  She must come willingly:  This point is made in many versions of the tale. Beauty must replace her father willingly and cannot be forced to go except by her own conscience.

In From the Beast to the Blonde, Marina Warner theorizes that many fairy tales were created to comfort daughters who faced arranged marriages and leaving their homes to live in the unknown household of their in-laws. While the daughter is reluctant to leave, she is ultimately rewarded with a happy marriage through her honor of her parents and the initial sacrifice of her desires.
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20.  Promised:  Promises, while important today, were more powerful in the past when honor was a great motivator. Also, before the time of literacy among the masses and written contracts, verbal promises were given greater weight. A promise was a contract and actionable by law if broken.

Folklore emphasizes the importance of a promise by meting punishment upon those who do not keep their promises. While the temptation is for everyone to stay home and try to forget about the Beast, the family fears retribution for a broken promise.
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21.  Father:  The father is one of the three consistent characters in the Beauty and the Beast tales, along with Beauty and Beast. Sometime he is strong and other times he is weak. In Disney's film, he is an absent-minded inventor.

The father represents Beauty's childhood and her love for her family. Some scholars have interpreted Beauty's deliverance to the Beast as a traditional marriage contract in which the daughter does not choose her husband, but must marry to form an alliance her father deems as necessary for himself, his family, and/or his bank account.

Note that while the father gives up his grown daughter, making the image more comfortable than a young child, he is like the father in Rapunzel, giving his daughter's life to spare his own. The father in Rumpelstiltskin also gives up his daughter in exchange for his own life.
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22.  As you have come of your own accord, you may stay: Betsy Hearne writes: "Notably absent from 'Beauty and the Beast' is the motif that so often appears in other subtypes, the requirement that the female obey the male in not looking for him or betraying the secret of his identity. No tasks are set for her. She is allowed to come and go, is indeed asked at first whether she came of her own free will, and is requested to return for the Beast's sake. The Beast assumes a passive role and Beauty an active one" (Hearne 1989, 16).
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23.  Gold:  Essentially, the Beast is buying Beauty from her family with what can generously be called a wedding dowry. Beauty's self-sacrifice is not just saving her father's life, but is returning her family to a life of comfort and wealth.

Marina Warner interprets the tale as the historical storyteller's way of assuring young brides that arranged marriages in which they must go live with their husband's families can be survived and even happy. The bride must leave behind her old family and embrace her husband as a loving wife. Mutual affection and attachment between the husband and wife will lend itself to a happy marriage and life for the young bride (Warner 1994).

In two modern interpretations of the tale, the father loses Beauty to the Beast in a high stakes card game. The first is Guy Wetmore Carryl's How Beauty Contrived to Get Square With the Beast and the second is Angela Carter's "The Tiger's Bride" in The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories.

Gold represents virtue, intelligence, superiority, heaven, worldly wealth, idolatry, revealed truth, marriage, and fruitfulness (Olderr 1986).
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24.  Dreamed:  Beauty's dreams are a device introduced by de Villeneuve to tell Beauty to look beyond appearances. The dreams, while frustrating in their message, do not have a nightmare quality, merely comforting Beauty that all is not as it appears. They foreshadow, like many other elements in de Villeneuve's version, the Beast's transformation for Beauty and the reader.
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25.  Brook:  Sometimes the brook is also referred to as a canal in various translations. In de Beaumont's version of the story, Beauty will later find the Beast dying beside the canal in the garden.

A brook can symbolize deceit, spiritual guidance, and morning (Olderr 1986).
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26.  Prince:  As a romantic fairy tale, it is normal that the Beast, as foreshadowed here, is really a prince. Most versions of the tale do not show the Prince's image to Beauty to foreshadow the Beast's transformation. Ironcially, many readers express disappointment in the "everyday" appearance of the Prince as a result. In some versions of the tale, especially those in which the Prince is not as blatantly foreshadowed, Beauty appears almost disappointed in the Prince's appearance, missing the appearance of her beloved Beast whom she has accepted as her lover and future husband.

The Disney film returns to de Villeneuve's devices by revealing the Beast's true appearance in a portrait to Beauty although she is unaware of the connection at the time. This foreshadowing helps viewers accept the human prince over the carefully drawn and crafted Beast they have come to love during the course of the movie.
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27.  Do not trust too much to your eyes:  Here is the central theme of the story. Although many later versions of the story omit the dream sequence and blatant messages to Beauty, the theme has stayed the same throughout most of the retellings.
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28.  Mirrors:  A mirror has many symbolic meanings of truth and representation of a person's heart. In some versions of the tale, no mirrors exist in the Beast's palace. One explanation is that the Beast cannot tolerate looking at himself and the physical monster he has become. In the past, mirrors were expensive and a luxury reserved for the wealthy.
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29.  Bracelet:  The bracelet is a device used by de Villeneuve so Beauty can wear a physical representation of the Beast's true form. Beauty becomes accustomed to the Prince's likeness, lessening the surprise when her lover is transformed from Beast to Prince.
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30.  Portrait:  In the time before photography, painted portraits were important to families to preserve the memory and image of their ancestors. Portraits were limited to the wealthy due to the expense and time needed to create one. The portrait is a device used by de Villeneuve to introduce Beauty to the Beast's true form and foreshadow his transformation. Most later versions of the story do not use this device.
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31.  Musical instrument:  Owning numerous musical instruments would be a luxury often reserved for the rich in past centuries due to their expense. Women of refinement would often learn to play the piano, harp, pianoforte or similar instruments for entertainment and personal improvement. An accomplished young women might play more than one instrument.
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32.  Library:  The library appears in many versions of the tale. This is one of the few tales in which such a room is described. The library is important as a place for Beauty to find entertainment and leisure as well as education and stimulation.

Beauty and the Beast provides a subtle support of education for women. Betsy Hearne points out that Beauty is educated and "does a lot of reading in her spare time." In contrast, Beauty's sisters do not read, study, or work in any way. They remain empty-headed and wait for suitors to propose marriage. "They are not satisfied with what they get, having neglected their inner development" (Hearne 1989, 18).

The description of the numerous books, "everything she had ever wanted to read, as well as everything she had read" and more, is a book lover's fantasy and has made this tale a favorite among bibliophiles. In her novel, Beauty, Robin McKinley includes books yet to be written in Beauty's time in the library. Essentially the library is a repository of every book ever written, past, present and future.
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33.  Do you love me, Beauty? Will you marry me?  This question is a common refrain in many versions of the tale, usually asked daily after dinner but before Beauty retires to her room to sleep. The question inspires both pity and fear in Beauty and the tale's readers. No one is sure whether the Beast will be angered by a negative response, but Beauty cannot bring herself to answer anything but no despite the possible harm she might receive as a result. Later, as the story progresses, readers wonder if Beauty will change her mind and marry the Beast who is kind and gentle to her.
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34.  Garden:  The garden is an important element of the tale, appearing in most versions. It represents the magical field and boundaries around the Beast's castle, immune to the seasons and growing impossible and beautiful fruits and flowers.

A garden symbolizes the conscious, the soul, nature subdued, feminine fertility, happiness, Paradise, salvation, purity, the world, and the place of mystic ecstasy (Olderr 1986).
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35.  Birds: Beauty's love for the birds shows her kindness to animals great and small. In her Beauty, Robin McKinley tells how the Beast has scared away all living animals from his estate. Beauty attracts animals back to the castle, beginning with birds, as she makes the castle her home.

Talking and singing birds represent amorous yearning. A bird can symbolize air, wind, time, immortality, the female principle, aspiration, prophecy, love, and freedom (Olderr 1986).
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36.  Pantomime:  A pantomime is a performance using gestures and body movements without words (Webster's Dictionary 1990).
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37.  Beauty had quite ceased to be afraid of him:  Beauty has come to know the Beast. He continues to physically appear as an animal to her, but she now knows his personality. In a sense he is no longer the Beast because he is now her friend. Her lack of fear also leads to her ability to love him.
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38.  Ring:  The magical ring is a common element in Beauty and the Beast stories. The ring magically transports Beauty to and fro to visit her family, but also serves as a physical reminder of the Beast while she is away from him. That rings are common symbols of marriage is not an accidental coincidence.

A ring represents continuity, wholeness, marriage, an eternally repeated cycle, a contract, union, power, bond, fertility, female love, eternity, justice, and delegation of authority (Olderr 1986).
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39.  Sisters:  In later versions of the story, the sisters are often kind and entreat Beauty to stay home out of love. In other versions such as this one and de Beaumont's, the sisters are mean and jealous, scheming to see Beauty's good fortunes destroyed.
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40.  Cave:  Although de Villeneuve uses a cave, in most versions such as de Beaumont's, Beauty finds the dying Beast in his garden which is usually dying with him.

A cave can represent the secretive, security, impregnability, the unconscious, the womb, mother, Hell, resurrection, burial, fertility, the human mind, the heart, refuge, primitive shelter (Olderr 1986).
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41.  Dead:  In the earliest versions of the tale, the Beast is usually dying from grief over Beauty's continued absence. He has given up the will to live, fasting himself to death in de Beaumont's story. In later versions, of which the Disney film is a prime example, the Beast has been given a time limit to find a woman to marry him out of love. The time limit is almost reached when Beauty appears in time to declare her love and save him.
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42.  Fetching some water from the nearest fountain, she sprinkled it over his face:  In later versions, Beauty often tries to revive the Beast with a kiss or simply weeps over him while declaring her love. As soon as her love and/or promise to marry him is declared, his physical transformation into human form takes place.

Both de Villeneuve and de Beaumont describe Beauty's search for water to sprinkle on the Beast and her active attempts to revive the him. In de Beamont's version, the prince is transformed when the water is poured on him.

As can be seen in this version, the prince is not transformed until the evening when he once again asks Beauty to marry him and she finally answers in the affirmative. This time of transformation is not de Villeneuve's choice however. In her original story, Beauty agrees to marry the Beast. They immediately watch a display of fireworks that start when she accepts his hand. She then retires to bed and once again dreams of the Prince who is happy she has accepted the Beast much to her own consternation. When she awakens the next morning, she finds the Prince in the bed beside her, asleep. She compares his face to the portrait on her bracelet. He finally awakens and explains the enchantment and transformation.

Marina Warner comments on the parallism between the Beauty sprinkling the Beast and a sacramental baptism. Essentially, Beauty is washing the Beast clean of his animal nature (Warner 1994).
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43.  Can you really love such an ugly creature as I am?:  The most common theme and moral attributed to this tale is that beauty is not skin deep. Love should be based on the inner beauty of a person, not his or her physical appearance. Beauty falls in love with the Beast despite his appearance, thanks to his tenderness and own love for her. In Beauty's eyes, the Beast is no longer ugly.
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44.  In his place stood her long-loved Prince:  In most versions, the Beast's transformation is physical. In a sense, his transformation is purely physical since he has not changed, but only convinced to Beauty to see him as he really is. In some versions his intelligence has been stunted during his enchantment, but is returned when he is physically transformed.

Some modern day authors have chosen to keep the Beast in his beastly form, allowing his transformation only to be in Beauty's eyes as she grows to love him. In Robin McKinley's Rose Daughter, Beauty is given the choice between her lover staying in beastly form or returning to human form.
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45.  Queen:  The queen is the Beast/Prince's mother. In this as in many other fairy tales, Beauty will become royalty for her generous and loving actions. Beauty has her happy ending by finding her prince hidden inside the guise of a beast.

In de Villeneuve's version of the tale, the Queen is against the marriage since Beauty is a commoner and not part of the nobility. Once Beauty is revealed to be descended from royalty, the Queen gives the marriage her blessing.
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46.  Fairy:  The fairy is present in both of the versions by de Villeneuve and de Beaumont. She plays a critical part in taking care of the prince from a distance while he is enchanted and providing answers to Beauty's questions later. She is essentially a fairy godmother to both Beauty and the Beast.

A fairy represents the supra-normal powers of the human soul; latent possibilities; the personification of stages in the development of the spirit; and the lesser spiritual moods of the universal spirit (Olderr 1986).
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47.  Marriage was celebrated: In Madame de Beaumont's version of the tale, the fairy turns the jealous sisters into statues as punishment for their mean hearts. The statues will stand at the portal of Beauty's palace until the day when the sisters recognize their faults. The fairy predicts they will remain forever as statues.

Note that in Cupid and Psyche, this tale's predecessor, "Psyche is brought to happiness by obedience and trial; hers are outer obstacles while Beauty's are inner conflicts resolved by free will" (Hearne 1989, 19). This is perhaps the most significant difference between the stories, making Beauty and the Beast the preferred story with our modern sensibilities.
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